Dschingis Khan, oder Tenujin, wie er damals genannt wurde, begann sehr jung mit seinen Verbrechen: er war erst 14 Jahre alt, als er das erste beging. Dschingis Khan hat ein sehr großes Reich aufzubauen. Er und Enkel Kubulai gelten als zwei der interessantesten Kaiser in der Welt. Wie er ausgesehen hat, weiß man nicht genau. Doch über das Leben des Dschingis Khan ist manches überliefert. Eine blutige Erfolgsstory.
Cengiz Khan Das Weltreich der Mongolen
Dschingis Khan war ein Khagan der Mongolen und Begründer des Mongolischen Reichs. Er vereinte die mongolischen Stämme und eroberte weite Teile Zentralasiens und Nordchinas. Seine Regierungszeit als erster Khagan der Mongolen dauerte von bis. Dschingis Khan (mongolisch Чингис Хаан, mongolisch ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, ursprünglich Temüdschin, Тэмүжин, ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠵᠢᠨ oder Temüüdschin. Dieser Artikel enthält die Stammliste der Nachfahren Dschingis Khans, d. h. der Großkhane und Khane des mongolischen Reichs und ab Kubilai Khan auch der. Als der Mongole Dschingis Khan im / Jahrhundert sein riesiges Reich eroberte, zeugte er mit zahllosen Frauen Kinder: Auch eine Frage. Dschingis Khan, oder Tenujin, wie er damals genannt wurde, begann sehr jung mit seinen Verbrechen: er war erst 14 Jahre alt, als er das erste beging. Archäologie:Der Speiseplan des Dschingis Khan. MONGOLIA Re enactement of an attack by the mounted armies of Genghis Khan emperor of. Wie er ausgesehen hat, weiß man nicht genau. Doch über das Leben des Dschingis Khan ist manches überliefert. Eine blutige Erfolgsstory.
Dieser Artikel enthält die Stammliste der Nachfahren Dschingis Khans, d. h. der Großkhane und Khane des mongolischen Reichs und ab Kubilai Khan auch der. Dschingis Khan, oder Tenujin, wie er damals genannt wurde, begann sehr jung mit seinen Verbrechen: er war erst 14 Jahre alt, als er das erste beging. Wie er ausgesehen hat, weiß man nicht genau. Doch über das Leben des Dschingis Khan ist manches überliefert. Eine blutige Erfolgsstory.
Due to his exceptional military successes, Genghis Khan is often considered to be the greatest conqueror of all time. Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor.
Later his grandsons split his empire into khanates. By his request, his body was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia.
Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories.
Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system.
He also practised meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia.
This brought relatively easy communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, and Christian Europe , expanding the cultural horizons of all three areas.
Genghis Khan's father, Yesügei leader of the Borjigin clan and nephew to Ambaghai and Hotula Khan , emerged as the head of the ruling Mongol clan.
This position was contested by the rival Tayichi'ud clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai. When the Tatars grew too powerful after , the Jin switched their support from the Tatars to the Keraites.
Little is known about Genghis Khan's early life, due to the lack of contemporary written records. The few sources that give insight into this period often contradict.
Genghis Khan's birth name, Temüjin, was derived from the Mongol word temür meaning "of iron", while jin denotes agency. Genghis Khan was probably born in [note 2] in Delüün Boldog , near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia , close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar.
The Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader.
He was the first son of Hoelun, second wife of his father Yesügei , who was a Kiyad chief prominent in the Khamag Mongol confederation and an ally of Toghrul of the Keraite tribe.
According to the Secret History , Temüjin was named after the Tatar chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just captured. Temüjin's noble background made it easier for him to solicit help from and eventually consolidate the other Mongol tribes.
Temüjin had three brothers Hasar , Hachiun , and Temüge , one sister Temülen , and two half-brothers Begter and Belgutei. Like many of the nomads of Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was difficult.
Temüjin was to live there serving the head of the household Dai Setsen until the marriageable age of While heading home, his father ran into the neighboring Tatars , who had long been Mongol enemies, and they offered him food that poisoned him.
Upon learning this, Temüjin returned home to claim his father's position as chief. But the tribe refused this and abandoned the family, leaving it without protection.
For the next several years, the family lived in poverty, surviving mostly on wild fruits, ox carcasses , marmots , and other small game killed by Temüjin and his brothers.
Temüjin's older half-brother Begter began to exercise power as the eldest male in the family and would eventually have the right to claim Hoelun who was not his own mother as a wife.
In a raid around , Temüjin was captured by his father's former allies, the Tayichi'ud , and enslaved, reportedly with a cangue a sort of portable stocks.
With the help of a sympathetic guard, he escaped from the ger yurt at night by hiding in a river crevice. Soon, Jelme and Bo'orchu joined forces with him.
They and the guard's son Chilaun eventually became generals of Genghis Khan. At this time, none of the tribal confederations of Mongolia were united politically, and arranged marriages were often used to solidify temporary alliances.
Temüjin grew up observing the tough political climate, which included tribal warfare , thievery , raids , corruption, and revenge between confederations, compounded by interference from abroad such as from China to the south.
As was common for powerful Mongol men, Genghis Khan had many wives and concubines. Each camp also contained junior wives, concubines, and even children.
It was the job of the Kheshig Mongol imperial guard to protect the yurts of Genghis Khan's wives. The guards had to pay particular attention to the individual yurt and camp in which Genghis Khan slept, which could change every night as he visited different wives.
The marriage between Börte and Genghis Khan then known as Temüjin was arranged by her father and Yesügei , Temüjin's father, when she was 10 and he was 9 years old.
When Börte's father saw that Temüjin had returned to marry Börte he had the pair "united as man and wife". With the permission of her father, Temüjin took Börte and her mother to live in his family yurt.
Börte's dowry was a fine black sable jacket. Soon after the marriage between them took place, the Three Merkits attacked their family camp at dawn and kidnapped Börte.
Temüjin was deeply distressed by the abduction of his wife and remarked that his "bed was made empty" and his "breast was torn apart".
She heard the voice of Temüjin and, recognizing it, she got off the cart and came running towards him. Börte was held captive for eight months, and gave birth to Jochi soon after she was rescued.
This left doubt as to who the father of the child was, because her captor took her as a "wife" and could have possibly impregnated her.
Börte had three more sons, Chagatai — , Ögedei — , and Tolui — Temüjin had many other children with other wives, but they were excluded from the succession, only Börte's sons could be considered to be his heirs.
However, the poor survival of Mongol records means it is unclear whether she gave birth to all of them. During his military campaign against the Tatars, Temüjin fell in love with Yesugen and took her in as a wife.
She was the daughter of a Tatar leader named Yeke Cheren that Temüjin's army had killed during battle. After the military campaign against the Tatars was over, Yesugen, one of the survivors went to Temüjin, who slept with her.
According to the Secret History of the Mongols , while they were having sex Yesugen asked Temüjin to treat her well and to not discard her.
When Temüjin seemed to agree with this, Yesugen recommended that he also marry her sister Yesui. But my elder sister, who is called Yisüi, is superior to me: she is indeed fit for a ruler.
Both the Tatar sisters, Yesugen and Yesui, became a part of Temüjin's principal wives and were given their own camps to manage. Temüjin also took a third woman from the Tatars, an unknown concubine.
At the recommendation of her sister Yesugen, Temüjin had his men track down and kidnap Yesui. When she was brought to Temüjin, he found her every bit as pleasing as promised and so he married her.
Genghis Khan took Yesui with him when he set out on his final expedition against the Tangut empire. Khulan entered Mongol history when her father, the Merkit leader Dayir Usan, surrendered to Temüjin in the winter of and gave her to him.
But at least according to the Secret History of the Mongols, Khulan and her father were detained by Naya'a, one of Temüjin's officers, who was apparently trying to protect them from Mongol soldiers who were nearby.
After they arrived three days later than expected, Temüjin suspected that Naya'a was motivated by his carnal feelings towards Khulan to help her and her father.
While Temüjin was interrogating Naya'a, Khulan spoke up in his defense and invited Temüjin to have sex with her and inspect her virginity personally, which pleased him.
In the end Temüjin accepted Dayir Usan's surrender and Khulan as his new wife. However, Dayir Usan later retracted his surrender but he and his subjects were eventually subdued, his possessions plundered, and he himself killed.
Temüjin continued to carry out military campaigns against the Merkits until their final dispersal in Khulan was able to achieve meaningful status as one of Temüjin's wives and managed one of the large wifely camps, in which other wives, concubines, children and animals lived.
She gave birth to a son named Gelejian, who went on to participate with Börte's sons in their father's military campaigns.
She was a renowned beauty on the plains. She was originally a favored concubine of Inanch Bilge khan and after his death, she became the consort of his son Tayang Khan.
Since Tayang Khan was a useless ruler, Juerbiesu was in control of almost all power in Naiman politics.
After Genghis Khan destroyed the Naiman tribe and Tayang Khan was killed, Juerbiesu made several offensive remarks regarding Mongols, describing their clothes as dirty and smelly.
Yet, she abruptly rescinded her claims and visited Genghis Khan's tent alone. He questioned her about the remarks but was immediately attracted to her beauty.
After spending the night with him, Juerbiesu promised to serve him well and he took her as one of his empresses. Her status was only inferior to Khulan and Borte.
In the early 12th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several prominent tribal confederations , including Naimans , Merkits , Tatars , Khamag Mongols , and Keraites , that were often unfriendly towards each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering.
Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally or, according to other sources, a vassal to his father's anda sworn brother or blood brother Toghrul , who was Khan of the Keraites , and is better known by the Chinese title " Wang Khan ", which the Jurchen Jin dynasty granted him in This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits.
Temüjin turned to Toghrul for support, and Toghrul offered 20, of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha , who had himself become Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran.
Although the campaign rescued Börte and utterly defeated the Merkits , it also paved the way for the split between Temüjin and Jamukha.
Before this, they were blood brothers anda vowing to remain eternally faithful. As Jamukha and Temüjin drifted apart in their friendship, each began consolidating power, and they became rivals.
Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy , while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers.
Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in with an army of 30, troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut.
Around the year , the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars , with help from the Keraites and Mongols.
Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul were restored by the Jin to positions of power.
Around , the main rivals of the Mongol confederation traditionally the "Mongols" were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south, and the Jin to the east.
In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol tradition in a few crucial ways. He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties.
When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians. Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe.
He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family. These political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory.
Senggum , son of Toghrul Wang Khan , envied Genghis Khan's growing power and affinity with his father. He allegedly planned to assassinate Genghis Khan.
Although Toghrul was allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Genghis Khan, he gave in to his son  and became uncooperative with Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists. One of the later ruptures between Genghis Khan and Toghrul was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi , Genghis Khan's first son.
This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture and led to a war. Toghrul allied with Jamukha , who already opposed Genghis Khan's forces.
However, the dispute between Toghrul and Jamukha, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Genghis Khan, led to Toghrul's defeat.
Jamukha escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissolution of the Keraite tribe.
After conquering his way steadily through the Alchi Tatars, Keraites, and Uhaz Merkits and acquiring at least one wife each time, Temüjin turned to the next threat on the steppe, the Turkic Naimans under the leadership of Tayang Khan with whom Jamukha and his followers took refuge.
In , a khuruldai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan , "universal ruler", a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai.
Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Genghis Khan, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him.
Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai , Jelme 's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamukha was turned over to Genghis Khan by his own men in Genghis Khan had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army.
Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death. The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken.
Jamukha requested this form of death, although he was known to have boiled his opponents' generals alive. The part of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai , who was by then a member of Genghis Khan's personal guard and later became one of Genghis Khan's most successful commanders.
The Naimans' defeat left Genghis Khan as the sole ruler of the Mongol steppe — all the prominent confederations fell or united under his Mongol confederation.
Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamukha who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes and Wang Khan his and his father's ally , his son Jochi , and problems with the most important shaman , who allegedly tried to drive a wedge between him and his loyal brother Khasar.
His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals, exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems.
He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. He was also ruthless, demonstrated by his tactic of measuring against the linchpin , used against the tribes led by Jamukha.
As a result, by , Genghis Khan had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits , Naimans , Mongols , Keraites, Tatars , Uyghurs , and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule.
This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force.
The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuruldai , a council of Mongol chiefs, Genghis Khan was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan".
The title Khagan was conferred posthumously by his son and successor Ögedei who took the title for himself as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan dynasty.
According to the Secret History of the Mongols, the chieftains of the conquered tribes pledged to Genghis Khan by proclaiming:. We will throw ourselves like lightning on your enemies.
We will bring you their finest women and girls, their rich tents like palaces. Genghis Khan was a Tengrist , but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions.
Muqali then reported on the two to Genghis Khan who issued the following decree on their behalf: "They truly are men who pray to Heaven. I should like to support them with clothes and food and make them chiefs.
I'm planning on gathering many of this kind of people. While praying to Heaven, they should not have difficulties imposed on them.
To forbid any mistreatment, they will be authorized to act as darqan possessor of immunity. He thanked Qiu Chuji for accepting his invitation and asked if Qiu Chuji had brought the medicine of immortality with him.
Qiu Chuji said there was no such thing as a medicine of immortality but that life can be extended through abstinence.
Genghis Khan appreciated his honest reply and asked Qiu Chuji who it is that calls him eternal heavenly man, he himself or others.
The Daoists lost their privilege in after the Great Debate organized by Genghis Khan's grandson Möngke Khan when Chinese Buddhists led by the Mongol-appointed abbot or shaolim zhanglao of Shaolin monastery , Confucians and Tibetan Buddhists allied against the Daoists.
Kublai Khan had already met Haiyun in and been swayed towards Buddhism. Genghis Khan's decree exempting Daoists xiansheng , Buddhists toyin , Christians erke'üd and Muslims dashmad from tax duties were continued by his successors until the end of the Yuan dynasty in All the decrees use the same formula and state that Genghis Khan first gave the decree of exemption.
I have given this decree to the Shaolin elder to carry it. According to Juvaini, Genghis Khan allowed religious freedom to Muslims during his conquest of Khwarezmia "permitting the recitation of the takbir and the azan ".
Kublai Khan revived the decree in after Muslims refused to eat at a banquet. He forbade Halal butchering and circumcision.
The decree of Kublai Khan was revoked after a decade. Genghis Khan met Wahid-ud-Din in Afghanistan in and asked him if the prophet Muhammad predicted a Mongol conqueror.
He was initially pleased with Wahid-ud-Din but then dismissed him from his service saying "I used to consider you a wise and prudent man, but from this speech of yours, it has become evident to me that you do not possess complete understanding and that your comprehension is but small".
During the political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan and his allies shared its western borders with the Western Xia dynasty of the Tanguts.
To the east and south was the Jin dynasty , founded by the Manchurian Jurchens , who ruled northern China as well as being the traditional overlords of the Mongolian tribes for centuries.
Genghis Khan organized his people, army, and his state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was close to the Mongolian lands.
He correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia.
When the Tanguts requested help from the Jin dynasty, they were refused. Wanyan Jiujin, the field commander of the Jin army, made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols at the first opportunity.
Instead, the Jin commander sent a messenger, Ming'an , to the Mongol side, who defected and told the Mongols that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass.
At this engagement fought at Yehuling , the Mongols massacred hundreds of thousands of Jin troops. In , Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu modern-day Beijing.
This forced the Jin ruler, Emperor Xuanzong , to move his capital south to Kaifeng , abandoning the northern half of his empire to the Mongols.
Between and , Kaifeng fell to the Mongols under the reign of Genghis's third son, Ögedei Khan. The Jin dynasty collapsed in , after the siege of Caizhou.
Kuchlug , the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation that Temüjin defeated and folded into his Mongol Empire, fled west and usurped the khanate of Qara Khitai also known as the Western Liao, as it was originally established as remnants of the Liao dynasty.
Genghis Khan decided to conquer the Qara Khitai and defeat Kuchlug, possibly to take him out of power. By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty.
Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen 20, soldiers against Kuchlug, under his younger general, Jebe , known as "The Arrow".
With such a small force, the invading Mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters, leaving the Qara Khitai more vulnerable to Mongol conquest.
As a result, Kuchlug's army was defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug fled again, but was soon hunted down by Jebe's army and executed.
By , as a result of the defeat of Qara Khitai, the Mongol Empire and its control extended as far west as Lake Balkhash , which bordered Khwarazmia , a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to the south.
Genghis Khan saw the potential advantage in Khwarazmia as a commercial trading partner using the Silk Road , and he initially sent a man caravan to establish official trade ties with the empire.
Genghis Khan and his family and commanders invested in the caravan gold, silver, silk, various kinds of textiles and fabrics and pelts to trade with the Muslim traders in the Khwarazmian lands.
The situation became further complicated because the governor later refused to make repayments for the looting of the caravans and hand over the perpetrators.
Genghis Khan then sent a second group of three ambassadors two Mongols and a Muslim to meet the Shah himself, instead of the governor Inalchuq.
The Shah had all the men shaved and the Muslim beheaded and sent his head back with the two remaining ambassadors.
Outraged, Genghis Khan planned one of his largest invasion campaigns by organizing together around , soldiers 10 tumens , his most capable generals and some of his sons.
He left a commander and number of troops in China, designated his successors to be his family members and likely appointed Ögedei to be his immediate successor and then went out to Khwarazmia.
The Mongol army under Genghis Khan, generals and his sons crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarazmian Empire.
After compiling intelligence from many sources Genghis Khan carefully prepared his army, which was divided into three groups. His son Jochi led the first division into the northeast of Khwarazmia.
The second division under Jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of Khwarazmia to form, with the first division, a pincer attack on Samarkand.
The third division under Genghis Khan and Tolui marched to the northwest and attacked Khwarazmia from that direction.
The Shah's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the Shah's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities.
This fragmentation was decisive in Khwarazmia's defeats, as it allowed the Mongols, although exhausted from the long journey, to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the Khwarazmian forces instead of facing a unified defense.
The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics. Genghis Khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians, enslaved the rest of the population and executed Inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes, as retribution for his actions.
Near the end of the battle the Shah fled rather than surrender. Genghis Khan ordered Subutai and Jebe to hunt him down, giving them 20, men and two years to do this.
The Shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire. The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was brutal.
After the capital Samarkand fell, the capital was moved to Bukhara by the remaining men, while Genghis Khan ordered two of his generals and their forces to completely destroy the remnants of the Khwarazmian Empire, including not only royal buildings, but entire towns, populations, and even vast swaths of farmland.
The Mongols attacked Samarkand using captured enemies as body shields. After several days only a few remaining soldiers, loyal supporters of the Shah , held out in the citadel.
After the fortress fell, Genghis supposedly reneged on his surrender terms and executed every soldier that had taken arms against him at Samarkand.
The people of Samarkand were ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where they were killed and pyramids of severed heads raised as a symbol of victory.
The city of Bukhara was not heavily fortified, with a moat and a single wall, and the citadel typical of Khwarazmian cities. The city leaders opened the gates to the Mongols, though a unit of Turkish defenders held the city's citadel for another twelve days.
Survivors from the citadel were executed, artisans and craftsmen were sent back to Mongolia, young men who had not fought were drafted into the Mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery.
As the Mongol soldiers looted the city, a fire broke out, razing most of the city to the ground. Meanwhile, the wealthy trading city of Urgench was still in the hands of Khwarazmian forces.
The assault on Urgench proved to be the most difficult battle of the Mongol invasion and the city fell only after the defenders put up a stout defense, fighting block for block.
Mongolian casualties were higher than normal, due to the unaccustomed difficulty of adapting Mongolian tactics to city fighting. As usual, the artisans were sent back to Mongolia, young women and children were given to the Mongol soldiers as slaves, and the rest of the population was massacred.
The Persian scholar Juvayni states that 50, Mongol soldiers were given the task of executing twenty-four Urgench citizens each, which would mean that 1.
The sacking of Urgench is considered one of the bloodiest massacres in human history. In the meantime, Genghis Khan selected his third son Ögedei as his successor before his army set out, and specified that subsequent Khans should be his direct descendants.
Genghis Khan had left Muqali , one of his most trusted generals, in command of all Mongol forces in Jin China while he battled the Khwarezmid Empire to the west.
After the defeat of the Khwarazmian Empire in , Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia to return to the Mongolian steppes.
Under the suggestion of Subutai , the Mongol army was split into two forces. Genghis Khan led the main army on a raid through Afghanistan and northern India towards Mongolia, while another 20, two tumen contingent marched through the Caucasus and into Russia under generals Jebe and Subutai.
They pushed deep into Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Mongols defeated the kingdom of Georgia , sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa in Crimea and overwintered near the Black Sea.
Subutai sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed.
There is no historical record except a short account by the Arab historian Ibn al-Athir , writing in Mosul some miles away from the event. Subutai agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes.
As was customary in Mongol society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death. Subutai had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals.
The Mongols learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe.
Genghis Khan recalled Subutai back to Mongolia soon afterwards, and Jebe died on the road back to Samarkand. The famous cavalry expedition led by Subutai and Jebe, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea defeating all armies in their path, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly in Europe.
These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions.
In both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions added Transoxiana and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way.
The vassal emperor of the Tanguts Western Xia had earlier refused to take part in the Mongol war against the Khwarezmid Empire.
Western Xia and the defeated Jin dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarazmians to preclude the Mongols from responding effectively.
In , immediately after returning from the west, Genghis Khan began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts. His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou , and Suzhou not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province , and in the autumn he took Xiliang -fu.
One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols to a battle near Helan Mountains but was defeated. According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory.
In , Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao -fu, Xining province, Xindu -fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the spring.
At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate.
Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts officially surrendered soon after.
Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut royal lineage.
The succession of Genghis Khan was already a significant topic during the later years of his reign, as he reached old age.
The long running paternity discussion about Genghis's oldest son Jochi was particularly contentious because of the seniority of Jochi among the brothers.
According to traditional historical accounts, the issue over Jochi's paternity was voiced most strongly by Chagatai.
In response to this tension  and possibly for other reasons, Ögedei was appointed as successor. Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei c.
He continued the expansion that his father had begun and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia.
Genghis Khan was aware of the friction between his sons particularly between Chagatai and Jochi and worried of possible conflict between them if he died.
He therefore decided to divide his empire among his sons and make all of them Khan in their own right, while appointing one of his sons as his successor.
Chagatai was considered unstable due to his temper and rash behavior, because of statements he made that he would not follow Jochi if he were to become his father's successor.
Tolui , Genghis Khan's youngest son, was not suitable since in Mongol culture, youngest sons were not given much responsibility due to their age.
If Jochi were to become successor, it was likely that Chagatai would engage in warfare with him and collapse the empire.
Therefore, Genghis Khan decided to give the throne to Ögedei. Ögedei was seen by Genghis Khan as dependable in character and relatively stable and down to earth and would be a neutral candidate that might defuse the situation between his brothers.
Jochi died in , during his father's lifetime. Some scholars, notably Ratchnevsky, have commented on the possibility that Jochi was secretly poisoned by an order from Genghis Khan.
Rashid al-Din reports that the great Khan sent for his sons in the spring of , and while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi remained in Khorasan.
Juzjani suggests that the disagreement arose from a quarrel between Jochi and his brothers in the siege of Urgench. Jochi had attempted to protect Urgench from destruction, as it belonged to territory allocated to him as a fief.
He concludes his story with the clearly apocryphal statement by Jochi: "Genghis Khan is mad to have massacred so many people and laid waste so many lands.
I would be doing a service if I killed my father when he is hunting, made an alliance with Sultan Muhammad, brought this land to life and gave assistance and support to the Muslims.
The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the Western Xia, illness, falling from his horse, or wounds sustained in hunting or battle.
He was already old and tired from his journeys. The Galician—Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Western Xia in battle, while Marco Polo wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign.
One chronicle from the early 17th century even relates the legend that the princess hid a small dagger and stabbed him, though some Mongol authors have doubted this version and suspected it to be an invention by the rival Oirads.
Years before his death, Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe.
After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in Khentii Aimag , where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River and the Burkhan Khaldun mountain part of the Kentii mountain range.
According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path to conceal where he was finally buried.
The Genghis Khan Mausoleum , constructed many years after his death, is his memorial, but not his burial site. In Chinese Nationalist soldiers took the mausoleum from its position at the 'Lord's Enclosure' Mongolian: Edsen Khoroo in Mongolia to protect it from Japanese troops.
By a new temple was erected there to house them. The "relics" were remade in the s and a great marble statue of Genghis was completed in On October 6, , a joint Japanese-Mongolian archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be Genghis Khan's palace in rural Mongolia, which raises the possibility of actually locating the ruler's long-lost burial site.
Other tales state that his grave was stampeded over by many horses, and that trees were then planted over the site, and the permafrost also did its part in hiding the burial site.
Genghis Khan left behind an army of more than , men; 28, were given to his various brothers and his sons. Tolui, his youngest son, inherited more than , men.
This force contained the bulk of the elite Mongolian cavalry. By tradition, the youngest son inherits his father's property. His mother and the descendants of his three brothers received 3, men each.
The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code , called the Yassa , created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy.
Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life, including Mongols , Turks and others and included many diverse Khans of various ethnicities as part of the Mongol Empire such as Muhammad Khan.
There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance because Mongol tradition had long held that religion was a personal concept, and not subject to law or interference.
Various Mongol tribes were Shamanist, Buddhist or Christian. Religious tolerance was thus a well established concept on the Asian steppe. Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis Khan attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women.
Women played a relatively important role in the Mongol Empire and in the family, for example Töregene Khatun was briefly in charge of the Mongol Empire while the next male leader Khagan was being chosen.
Modern scholars refer to the alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication as the Pax Mongolica Mongol Peace.
Genghis Khan realised that he needed people who could govern cities and states conquered by him. He also realised that such administrators could not be found among his Mongol people because they were nomads and thus had no experience governing cities.
For this purpose Genghis Khan invited a Khitan prince, Chu'Tsai , who worked for the Jin and had been captured by the Mongol army after the Jin dynasty was defeated.
Jin had captured power by displacing Khitan. Genghis told Chu'Tsai, who was a lineal descendant of Khitan rulers, that he had avenged Chu'Tsai's forefathers.
Chu'Tsai responded that his father served the Jin dynasty honestly and so did he; also he did not consider his own father his enemy, so the question of revenge did not apply.
This reply impressed Genghis Khan. Chu'Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol Khans.
Genghis Khan put absolute trust in his generals, such as Muqali , Jebe and Subutai , and regarded them as close advisors, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members.
He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum. Muqali, a trusted lieutenant, was given command of the Mongol forces against the Jin dynasty while Genghis Khan was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucasus and Kievan Rus' , an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative.
While granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions, Genghis Khan also expected unwavering loyalty from them. The Mongol military was also successful in siege warfare , cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol cavalry in capturing cities.
Another standard tactic of the Mongol military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack.
Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam , adapted from previous Chinese models.
Bald darauf wurde dort eine mongolische Karawane überfallen und die Reisenden ermordet. Gleichzeitig wollte er auch schon zu seinen Lebzeiten die Nachfolgefrage klären.
Zunächst entstand bei dieser Klärung ein heftiger Streit unter den Söhnen, und der älteste wurde von allen anderen heftig beschimpft. So bedeutet dessen Name Dschötschi der Fremde , und daraus ergab sich der Streit zwischen den beiden ältesten Söhnen, wer von diesen tatsächlich der Erstgeborene war.
Durch die Festsetzung seiner Residenz gerade an dieser Stelle stellte er sich bewusst in die Tradition seiner Vorgänger.
Zur Festigung seiner Macht entwickelte sich Karakorum später zur ersten Hauptstadt des Mongolenreiches und wurde unter seinem Nachfolger auch mit einer Befestigungsanlage versehen.
Für die Mongolen ist Karakorum noch heute das historische Zentrum ihres Nationalstaates. Einige der fremden Handwerker und Künstler kamen freiwillig, andere wurden jedoch auch hierher verschleppt.
Dschingis Khan und seine Nachfolger zeigten in Karakorum neben ihren Kriegstaten ein zweites, völlig anderes Gesicht.
Durch ihre tolerante Haltung allem Neuen und Unbekannten gegenüber wurde ihre Hauptstadt nicht nur die Schaltzentrale der Reichsverwaltung und ein Zentrum des Handels und Kunsthandwerks, sondern auch zu einem Schmelztiegel unterschiedlicher Religionen, Kulturen und Völker.
Dort besiegten sie die Rus und Kiptschaken in der Schlacht an der Kalka. Zu dieser Zeit waren die Mongolen nicht gekommen, um Eroberungen zu machen und zogen sich nach ihrem Sieg in die Mongolei zurück.
Auch an diesem Feldzug war Sube'etai als Kommandeur beteiligt. Auf dem Weg dahin starb er, vermutlich am August Die Todesursache ist nicht geklärt, nach der am weitesten verbreiteten Darstellung erlag er den inneren Verletzungen nach einem Reitunfall.
Laut der Galizisch-Wolhynischen Chronik wurde er von den Tanguten getötet. Volkstümliche Überlieferungen berichten auch von einer tangutischen Prinzessin, welche ihr Volk rächen und ihrer eigenen Vergewaltigung zuvorkommen wollte, indem sie ihn mit einem versteckten Messer entmannte.
Als Dschingis Khan gestorben war, wurden alle Lebewesen in seiner Umgebung, inklusive Menschen, die am Begräbnis teilgenommen hatten, getötet.
Nach mongolischer Tradition wurde der Ort der Grabstätte geheim gehalten und bis heute wurde das Grab von Dschingis Khan nicht gefunden.
Seinen Bestattungsort haben angeblich tausend Reiter mit den Hufen ihrer Pferde eingeebnet, und sie sollen nach ihrer Rückkehr sofort hingerichtet worden sein, damit sie den genauen Ort niemandem verraten konnten.
Allgemein wird angenommen, dass Dschingis Khan im Chentii-Aimag irgendwo am Südhang des Burchan Chaldun begraben wurde, da dieser Berg eine wichtige Rolle in seinem Leben gespielt hatte, aber es gibt so viele Legenden um seine Beerdigung, dass auch andere Grabstätten in Frage kommen.
Dabei handelt es sich um eine Gedenkstätte mit einem leeren Sarg und nicht um ein wirkliches Grab, also um ein Kenotaph. Dschingis Khan hatte entgegen aller Tradition, aber getreu seinem Grundsatz, dass Kompetenz und Eignung entscheide, noch zu Lebzeiten auf der Reichsversammlung von den zweitjüngsten Sohn Ögedei zu seinem Nachfolger bestimmt.
Normalerweise trat in der mongolischen Erbfolge sonst der jüngste Sohn die Nachfolge des Vaters an und erbte dessen Besitztümer — abzüglich des Anteils der älteren Söhne.
Jeder bekam sein eigenes Teilreich Khanat. Stammliste der Nachfahren Dschingis Khans. Anderen Quellen zufolge hat sie Ögedei selbst verfasst.
Sie erzählt die Lebensgeschichte von Dschingis Khan und nur der Familie des Khans war es gestattet, sie zu lesen.
Dieses Werk war jahrhundertelang verschollen. Erst wurden in chinesischer Zeichenschrift verfasste Abschriftteile in einer Bibliothek in China gefunden.
Das Original in mongolischer Schrift ist bis heute nicht wieder aufgetaucht. Die Geheime Geschichte stellt heraus, dass Dschingis Khan aufgrund seines Werdeganges höchsten Wert auf die persönliche Treue und Loyalität der Menschen gegenüber ihrem Herren oder ihren Freunden legte.
Doch brachte sein gewaltiges Reich seinen Bewohnern für eine lange Zeitspanne Sicherheit und Frieden. Gegen Ende seines Lebens begriff er offenbar, dass seine Regierungsprinzipien nicht die einzig gültigen waren und setzte Berater wie den Kitan Yelü Chucai und den Choresm-Türken Machmud Jalatwatsch in Spitzenpositionen ein, um sein Reich umfassend zu organisieren.
Dschingis Khans Reich wurde weiter ausgebaut und war gegen im Inneren so gut organisiert und befriedet, wie es für die meisten seiner Territorien zu keiner anderen Zeit der Fall war — ein Zustand, der auch Pax Mongolica genannt wird.
Dschingis Khan zeugte mit einer Vielzahl von Frauen zahlreiche Kinder, und mehrere seiner Söhne und Enkel taten es ihm darin gleich.
Nach einigen Schätzungen leben daher heute etwa 16 Millionen Männer, die Nachfahren des Mongolenherrschers sind. Es wird darum in der Tat angenommen, dass er und seine nahen männlichen Verwandten möglicherweise für dessen ungewöhnlich starke Verbreitung verantwortlich waren.
Die mongolische Armee war nach dem Dezimalsystem organisiert. Die Truppen wurden in Zehnerschaften geordnet, und die Männer kontrollierten sich gegenseitig.
Floh ein Krieger vor dem Feind, mussten auch die anderen neun sterben. Diese Standarte wird noch heute als wichtiges nationales Symbol im Verteidigungsministerium in Ulaanbaatar aufbewahrt.
Die Schlagkraft der neuen Armee beruhte auf ihrer strengen Disziplin, ihrer Wendigkeit auf den zähen und ausdauernden Pferden, ihren Waffen und ihrer ausgefeilten Gefechtstaktik.
Dabei machten sie unterwegs nur Rast zum Essen und Schlafen. Als Proviant führten die Kämpfer u. Mit dieser energiespendenden und nahrhaften Verpflegung konnten sie sich monatelang selbst versorgen.
Alle Mongolen wurden von Kind an als Reiter und Bogenschützen ausgebildet. Die Jagd galt ihnen als die Schule des Krieges. Ihre Hauptwaffe war ein besonderer Kompositbogen.
Sie führten immer mehrere Bögen und viele Pfeile mit geschmiedeten Eisenspitzen mit sich. Die Kompositbögen verliehen den abgeschossenen Pfeilen eine hohe Durchschlagskraft.
Dieser Ansatz und die dafür nötige Organisation leiten sich vermutlich von Erfahrungen mit der Kesseljagd in der Steppe ab. Viele Details aus seinem Leben und der Nomadenkultur seiner Zeit sind neben legendenhaften Einflechtungen in der Geheimen Geschichte der Mongolen zu finden, die etwa zehn Jahre nach seinem Tod von einem oder mehreren Autoren aus seinem engsten Umfeld aufgezeichnet wurde.
Daneben existieren zahlreiche Aufzeichnungen von Chronisten und Geschichtsschreibern aus China, dem persischen Raum und natürlich auch aus West- und Osteuropa zur Zeit des Mongolensturms.
Zu den Hauptquellen auch für diese Epoche der mongolischen Geschichte zählt vor allem die Geschichtsschreibung in persischer Sprache.
Von besonderer Bedeutung sind hier die bisherigen Grabungsergebnisse auf dem Gelände der ehemaligen Mongolenhauptstadt Karakorum. Dieser Artikel behandelt den mongolischen Führer.
Zum gleichnamigen Film siehe Dschingis Khan Film. Zur Musikgruppe siehe Dschinghis Khan. Dieser Artikel oder nachfolgende Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet.He correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia. Hachette Books. On August 18,Mongol leader Genghis Khan died from unknown causes while leading a military campaign in China. After conquering China, he Strohpuppe the country's Yuan Dynasty and became its first Auto Gebraucht Deutschland. The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was brutal. However, despite being an incredibly brutal murderer, the khan was not entirely without mercy.
Cengiz Khan Historical background VideoMongolia - Genghis Khan Statue Complex Als das Swr3 Programm Heute Reich immer reicher wurde und sich zu einer Weltmacht entwickelte, genossen die Bewohner den Roberto Campanella, wie zum Beispiel die unbegrenzte Verfügbarkeit von Alkohol. Männer mit höherem Status Kristin zum einen leichter als andere in der Lage, sich mit biologisch erfolgreichen — jungen — Frauen zu paaren, zum anderen konnten sie ihre Kinder besser ernähren. Floh ein Krieger vor dem Feind, mussten auch die anderen neun sterben. Damit waren die letzten Hürden auf dem Weg zur uneingeschränkten Macht überwunden. Es gilt nicht als ehrlos, einen Wächter hinterrücks zu erstechen. Jahrhundert Gestorben Mann. Gegen Ende seines Lebens begriff er offenbar, dass seine Regierungsprinzipien nicht die einzig gültigen waren und setzte Berater Audi A6 2019 den Kitan Yelü Chucai und den Choresm-Türken Machmud Jalatwatsch Winnetouch Spitzenpositionen ein, um sein Reich Das Konzert zu organisieren. Da gibt auch etwas Schönes anzusehen wie das traditionelle mongolische Gebäude Menggu Cengiz Khan und Grasland. Die Mongolen waren nicht nur erfolgreiche Eroberer, sie vermochten es auch, ihr riesiges Herrschaftsgebiet souverän unter Kontrolle zu halten. Ähnlich rücksichtslos ist die Kampftaktik der Mongolen. Grab von Dschingis Khan entdeckt? Eine amerikanische Expedition erforscht in der Mongolei einen Hügel, der von einer Mauer weiträumig umschlossen ist. Dschingis Khan hat ein sehr großes Reich aufzubauen. Er und Enkel Kubulai gelten als zwei der interessantesten Kaiser in der Welt. Dschingis Khan gründet das Mongolenreich. Die Mongolen waren Volksstämme, die aus dem Gebiet der heutigen Mongolei kamen. Sie lebten als Nomaden. Dschingis Khan und seine Erben. Das Weltreich der Mongolen. Juni bis September Im Jahr wird.
Cengiz Khan - Eine Karriere als KriegerWir freuen uns über ein Like. Er vereinte die mongolischen Stämme auf dem Territorium der heutigen zentralen und nördlichen Mongolei und führte sie zum Sieg gegen mehrere benachbarte Völker. Ebenso Ehebruch was sich natürlich nicht auf Sklavinnen oder Frauen fremder Nationen bezieht. Und daran schloss sich eine schwierige Jugend. Eric Stehfest seines 42 Plus Film eroberten seine Armeen mehr Land und Book Club Das Beste Kommt Noch oder nahmen mehr Leute gefangen als die Armeen von jedem anderen Imperator in der Weltgeschichte während ihrer Lebenszeit. Ab dem er 40 Jahre alt war hat Cengiz Khan Khan dann wegen des Kriegs mehrere Frauen geheiratet, aber die meisten Kinder sind von Börte. Rund Kilometer nordöstlich der Hauptstadt Ulaanbaatar hatten die Forscher im August eine Anhöhe mit 20 ungeöffneten Gräbern näher untersucht. Ohne den Schutz Gilligans Insel Deutsch Stammes Fit One Kündigen ihnen nach und nach ihr gesamtes Hab und Gut geraubt, und sie lebten die nächsten Jahre in Armut. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Gelegentlich Star Wars Kylo Ren Dschingis Khan seiner Frau oder seiner Mutter einen kleinen Jungen aus den jeweils unterworfenen Stämmen mit.
He then absolutely annihilated all of the population and wiped the city off the face of the earth. When he came to Samarkand he met heavy resistance by well over , soldiers, but he eventually managed to wear them down by cutting off their water supply, bringing them down by slow attrition and eventually breaking into the city proper.
Some accounts claim that when Genghis Khan and his men razed the city, the soldiers found any pregnant women and stabbed and removed the fetuses they found within.
Some reports say nearly half a million people were either killed or forced to flee the city, and when the Mongol rampage was finished, not even ruins remained.
Normally the khan could dominate his enemies in a short amount of time, but the battle dragged on for six months.
Records say that even after they actually got inside the city, they were unable to begin looting and plundering as they normally did.
The inside of the city was fortified and the enemy fought using guerilla warfare techniques from every house in the city.
The Mongols quickly grew tired of this, and decided that they needed to take more drastic measures.
They knew that ignominious death awaited them if they were captured by the Mongol forces, so they continued their defense to the death. The khan allegedly had a dam diverted to flood and destroy what was left, and decreed that any remaining civilian or soldier still alive was to be murdered, with no exceptions whatsoever.
If this is true, it would be one of, if not the, most massive genocides in a short period in the history of mankind. The difference between Genghis and recent brutal dictators like Stalin is that Genghis actually killed their enemies, whereas Stalin and Mao mostly massacred their own people.
Nothing is worse than infidel except a savage illiterate infidel, and his down syndrome is not an excuse for him and the rest of MongoTARDS to exempt them from hell.
I am not sorry for the fact that my ancestors humiliated and enslaved them for centuries later, plus they even turned their identity as an insult which is later adopted by nearly all the nations; I am sure you all know it.
And you are still living as barbarians: blowing people up, thinking you will get 72 virgins, stoning people, raping etc… The most hated people ever.
What is the reputation of your people around the world? Cave animals. You mate the biggest danger to the world, ever. No doubt. Also, you love sleeping with your sisters.
You sick, sick perverts. How old was Mohammed when he married Aisha? She was 9 right? You sick animals. This is coming from a real Muslim darling.
Learn your facts before you say them. Everything here is wrong. Genghis Khan outlawed torture and slavery. He never declared he was sent by God because he was practiced shamanism and worshiped the Eternal Blue Sky.
He was not brutal and always treated his soldiers fairly. That religion part number 4 is complete lies. Mongolians always believed that every religion is for every level of people.
That Muslim bit is complete lie, and jewish thing is rubbish anyways. Share Reddit 1. Liked it? Take a second to support Toptenz.
A Bret Cummens on July 17, pm. Albertzen95 on July 19, pm. That is the mongol empire under Kublai Khan leadership. Things were different by that time.
The early success of the Mongol army owed much to the brilliant military tactics of Genghis Khan, as well as his understanding of his enemies' motivations.
He employed an extensive spy network and was quick to adopt new technologies from his enemies. The well-trained Mongol army of 80, fighters coordinated their advance with a sophisticated signaling system of smoke and burning torches.
Large drums sounded commands to charge, and further orders were conveyed with flag signals. Every soldier was fully equipped with a bow, arrows, a shield, a dagger and a lasso.
He also carried large saddlebags for food, tools and spare clothes. The saddlebag was waterproof and could be inflated to serve as a life preserver when crossing deep and swift-moving rivers.
Cavalrymen carried a small sword, javelins, body armor, a battle-ax or mace, and a lance with a hook to pull enemies off of their horses.
The Mongols were devastating in their attacks. Because they could maneuver a galloping horse using only their legs, their hands were free to shoot arrows.
The entire army was followed by a well-organized supply system of oxcarts carrying food for soldiers and beasts alike, as well as military equipment, shamans for spiritual and medical aid, and officials to catalog the booty.
Following the victories over the rival Mongol tribes, other tribal leaders agreed to peace and bestowed on Temujin the title of "Genghis Khan," which means "universal ruler.
With this declaration of divine status, it was accepted that his destiny was to rule the world. Religious tolerance was practiced in the Mongol Empire, but to defy the Great Khan was equal to defying the will of God.
It was with such religious fervor that Genghis Khan is supposed to have said to one of his enemies, "I am the flail of God.
If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you. Genghis Khan wasted no time in capitalizing on his divine stature.
While spiritual inspiration motivated his armies, the Mongols were probably driven as much by environmental circumstances.
Food and resources were becoming scarce as the population grew. In , he led his armies against the kingdom of Xi Xia and, after two years, forced it to surrender.
In , Genghis Khan's armies struck the Jin Dynasty in northern China, lured not by the great cities' artistic and scientific wonders, but rather the seemingly endless rice fields and easy pickings of wealth.
Although the campaign against the Jin Dynasty lasted nearly 20 years, Genghis Khan's armies were also active in the west against border empires and the Muslim world.
Initially, Genghis Khan used diplomacy to establish trade relations with the Khwarizm Dynasty, a Turkish-dominated empire that included Turkestan, Persia, and Afghanistan.
But the Mongol diplomatic mission was attacked by the governor of Otrar, who possibly believed the caravan was a cover for a spy mission. When Genghis Khan heard of this affront, he demanded the governor be extradited to him and sent a diplomat to retrieve him.
Shah Muhammad, the leader of the Khwarizm Dynasty, not only refused the demand, but in defiance sent back the head of the Mongol diplomat.
This act released a fury that would sweep through central Asia and into eastern Europe. In , Genghis Khan personally took control of planning and executing a three-prong attack of , Mongol soldiers against the Khwarizm Dynasty.
The Mongols swept through every city's fortifications with unstoppable savagery. Those who weren't immediately slaughtered were driven in front of the Mongol army, serving as human shields when the Mongols took the next city.
No living thing was spared, including small domestic animals and livestock. Skulls of men, women, and children were piled in large, pyramidal mounds.
City after city was brought to its knees, and eventually the Shah Muhammad and later his son were captured and killed, bringing an end to the Khwarizm Dynasty in Scholars describe the period after the Khwarizm campaign as the Pax Mongolica.
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