Vichy Regime

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Vichy Regime

Nach der vorläufigen Niederlage Frankreichs im Zweiten Weltkrieg entstand das Vichy-Regime, das mit den Nationalsozialisten kollaborierte. Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab? Die Vichy-Regierung in Frankreich | Nach der Eroberung Frankreichs wird eine von Deutschland abhängig und arbeitete eng mit dem NS-Regime zusammen.

Vichy Regime Pétain wollte vom Sieg der Nationalsozialisten profitieren

Als Vichy-Regime (französisch Régime de Vichy) bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français („Französischer Staat“) nach der mit dem. Als Vichy-Regime bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français nach der mit dem Waffenstillstand vom Juni anerkannten militärischen Niederlage gegen das Deutsche Reich. Mit dem Verfassungsgesetz vom Juli löste das. Das Vichy-Regime. Philippe Petain, um Der aufgrund der französischen Niederlage während der deutschen Westoffensive am Juni im Wald von​. Wie die Franzosen im Zweiten Weltkrieg unter der damaligen Vichy-Regierung mit den Nazis kollaborierten. Staatschef des von der Wehrmacht besetzten Frankreich und residiert mit seinem Regime aus Nazi-Kollaborateuren und Faschisten in Vichy. Nach der vorläufigen Niederlage Frankreichs im Zweiten Weltkrieg entstand das Vichy-Regime, das mit den Nationalsozialisten kollaborierte. Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab?

Vichy Regime

Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab? Vichy-Regime. Die „Vichy-Regierung“ hatte eine Sonderstellung unter den von Nazideutschland besetzten Ländern: Die im zentralfranzösischen Vichy. Staatschef des von der Wehrmacht besetzten Frankreich und residiert mit seinem Regime aus Nazi-Kollaborateuren und Faschisten in Vichy.

Vichy Regime Frankreich wurde geteilt

STAND Vichy war mitverantwortlich für die Deportationen. Kappa Kappa Später wurde es möglich, den Dienst um weitere acht Monate zu verlängern und sich so Trödeltrupp Otto Zwangsarbeit in Industriebetrieben des NS-Staates zu entziehen. Nach der Besetzung der Südzone war der Handlungsspielraum Vichys eher symbolisch; Ende wurden führende Vertreter nach Sigmaringen in Süddeutschland gebracht und später in Frankreich vor Gericht gestellt. Flugblatt mit einem Aufruf Story Of Oj Vichy-Regierung, um Das Vichy-Regime nutzte sein dirigistisch ausgerichtetes Wirtschaftssystem zwar einerseits zur Bewältigung der existenziell wichtigen deutschen Produktions- und Lieferaufträge, versuchte andererseits aber auch den deutschen Einfluss auf die Wirtschaft nach Lauren Bowles zu begrenzen.

Instead, in addition to a Ministry of Youth, Family and Sport — he created over sixty organisations that were engaged in training the young in the right values of discipline, courage, loyalty and practical ability.

In fact, such initiatives assigned community work to groups of young people in order to engage them in activities, such as helping those in need, or collaborating with harvesting.

These organisations gave basic training for the unemployed between the ages of 14 and Youth groups were heavily imbued with the moralism of patriotic duty and civic service, yet, promised camaraderie and joy Lackerstein; : Young men could learn a trade or spend six months in the countryside learning peasant skills.

Lackerstein; He carried out such objective by introducing the Charte du Travail the Labor Charter in October Kitson; no date.

For these reasons, police forces became stricter: with the new law of April 23, , all police personnel were to become agents of the new state Curtis; : Police actions included the handing over of communists and Jews to the Nazis.

Large families would be given certain privileges and family allowances Curtis; : Furthermore, divorce was made impossible during the first three years of marriage and the regime introduced draconian laws such as the one in September that made abortion a capital offence, punishable by death Gorrora and Langford; In fact, due to the aforementioned law, two women were executed one of them was Marie-Louise Giraud, guillotined in Kitson; no date.

Moreover, a Vichy law of restricted the ability of women to work in the civil service and denied them further promotion to senior positions.

However, the law had to be soon suspended: irrespective of the pious rhetoric about the family, Vichy was faced with the reality that the number of single women had sharply increased because of the absence of prisoners of war and the men who worked in Germany.

Vichy had wanted to restrict the employment of women, yet, female labour was needed by At first, women were involved in charity networks and in assisting prisoners of war.

By , almost a quarter of all French workers in Germany were women; by about 50, women worked there Curtis; Issue: April Foreign Affairs.

Great Britain: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. France since the Revolution, texts and contexts. Vichy opened its first internment camp in the northern zone on October 5, , in Aincours, in the Seine-et-Oise department, which it quickly filled with PCF members.

Besides the concentration camps opened by Vichy, the Germans also opened on French territory some Ilags Internierungslager to detain enemy aliens, and in Alsace, which had been annexed by the Reich, they opened the camp of Natzweiler, which is the only concentration camp created by Nazis on French territory annexed by the Third Reich.

Natzweiler included a gas chamber which was used to exterminate at least 86 detainees mostly Jewish in the aim of constituting a collection of preserved skeletons as this mode of execution did no damage to the skeletons themselves for the use of Nazi professor August Hirt.

While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in such policies, the exact level of such cooperation is still debated.

Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Nazi Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses.

Former Vichy officials later claimed that they did as much as they could to minimize the impact of the Nazi policies, although mainstream French historians contend that the Vichy regime went beyond the Nazi expectations.

In August laws against antisemitism in the media the Marchandeau Act were repealed. The foundation, which became after the war the INED demographics institute, employed researchers from the summer of to the end of the autun of One of the founder of these pseudoscientifical theories had been Arthur de Gobineau in his essay titled An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.

In the preface to the German edition of his book, Alexis Carrel had added a praise to the eugenics policies of the Third Reich, writing that:.

The ideal solution would be the suppression of each of these individuals as soon as he has proven himself to be dangerous.

Those who have murdered, robbed while armed with automatic pistol or machine gun, kidnapped children, despoiled the poor of their savings, misled the public in important matters, should be humanely and economically disposed of in small euthanasic institutions supplied with proper gasses.

A similar treatment could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts. In the sole department of the Seine, encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs, nearly , persons, unaware of the up-coming danger and assisted by the French police, presented themselves to the police offices, in accordance with the military order.

The registered informations were then centralized by the French police, who constituted, under the direction of inspector Tulard, a central filing system.

They were then used by the Gestapo on various raids, among them the August raid in the XIe arrondissement of Paris, during which 3, foreign Jews and 1, French Jews were interned in various camps, including Drancy.

Furthermore, the French police noted on this occasion, on each identity documents of the Jewish people, their registration as Jews.

As Italian political philosopher Giorgio Agamben has pointed out, this racial profiling was an important step in the organization of the police raids against the French Jewish community.

On 3 October , the Vichy government voluntarily promulgated the first Statute on Jews, which created a special, under-class of French Jewish citizens, and enforced, for the first time ever in France, racial segregation.

The Statute first made mandatory the yellow badges, a reminiscence of old Christian anti-semitism. The October Statute also excluded Jews from the administration, the armed forces, entertainment, arts, media, and certain professional roles teachers, lawyers, doctors of medicine, etc.

It attentively monitored the Jews who did not respect the prohibition according to which they were not supposed to appear in public places and had to travel in the last car of the Parisian metro.

The police arrested 12, Jews — including 4, children which the Gestapo had not asked for — 5, women and 3, men, all sent to Drancy. By its own, this action represented more than a quarter of the 42, French Jews sent to Auschwitz in , of which only would come back after the end of the war.

In , president Jacques Chirac recognized the responsibility of the French state for this raid. In total, the Vichy government helped in the deportation of 76, Jews, although this number varies depending on the account, to German extermination camps; only 2, survived the war.

The French police, headed by Bousquet, arrested 7, Jews in the southern zone in August Then, on 22, 23 and 24 January , assisted by Bousquet's police force, the Germans organized a raid in Marseille.

During the Battle of Marseille, the French police controlled the identity of 40, people, and the operation succeeded in sending 2, Marseillese people in the death trains, leading to the extermination camps.

The operation also encompassed the expulsion of an entire neighborhood 30, persons in the Old Port before its destruction.

It is another notable case of the French police's willfull collaboration with the Nazis. The Vichy regime also implemented compulsory work in Germany for young Frenchmen service du travail obligatoire or STO , a move which pushed some of these young men to join the Resistance instead.

A number of the French advocated fascist philosophies even before the Vichy regime. Far-right organizations, such as La Cagoule, had contributed to the destabilization of the Third Republic, particularly when the left-wing Popular Front was in power.

After France's military defeat, some of these sympathisers actively assisted the Vichy regime; some even directly assisted the German in taking Jewish private property, destroying synagogues and other Jewish monuments, and in shipping Jews to German concentration camps.

Collaborationists may have influenced the Vichy government's policies, but ultra-collaborationists comprised the majority of the government only until Leahy to France as American ambassador.

President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull hoped to use American influence to encourage those elements in the Vichy government opposed to military collaboration with Germany.

The Americans also hoped to encourage Vichy to resist German war demands, such as for air bases in French-mandated Syria or to move war supplies through French territories in North Africa.

The essential American position was that France should take no action not explicitly required by the armistice terms that could adversely affect Allied efforts in the war.

This first choice having failed, they turned to Henri Giraud a short time before the landing in North Africa on November 8, US General Mark W.

After the assassination of Darlan on 24 December , Washington turned again towards Henri Giraud, to whom had rallied Maurice Couve de Murville, who had financial responsibilities in Vichy, and Lemaigre-Dubreuil, a former member of La Cagoule and entrepreneur, as well as Alfred Pose, general director of the Banque nationale pour le commerce et l'industrie National Bank for Trade and Industry.

Initially, Winston Churchill was ambivalent about de Gaulle and he dropped ties with Vichy only when it became clear they would not fight.

Even so, the Free France headquarters in London was riven with internal divisions and jealousies. The additional participation of Free French forces in the Syrian operation was controversial within Allied circles.

It raised the prospect of Frenchmen shooting at Frenchmen, raising fears of a civil war. Additionally, it was believed that the Free French were widely reviled within Vichy military circles, and that Vichy forces in Syria were less likely to resist the British if they were not accompanied by elements of the Free French.

Nevertheless, de Gaulle convinced Churchill to allow his forces to participate, although de Gaulle was forced to agree to a joint British-Free French proclamation promising that Syria and Lebanon would become fully independent at the end of the war.

However, there were still French naval ships under French control. Vice Admiral Somerville, with Force H under his command, was instructed to deal with the situation in July Various terms were offered to the French squadron, but all were rejected.

Consequently, Force H opened fire on the French ships. Nearly 1, French sailors died when the Bretagne blew up in the attack.

Less than two weeks after the armistice, Britain had fired upon forces of its former ally. The result was shock and resentment towards the UK within the French Navy, and to a lesser extent in the general French public.

The next flashpoint between Britain and Vichy came in June when a revolt in Iraq had to be put down by British forces.

Luftwaffe aircraft, staging through the French possession of Syria, intervened in the fighting in small numbers. That highlighted Syria as a threat to British interests in the Middle East.

One other major operation of British forces against Vichy French territory was the Battle of Madagascar.

It was feared that Japanese forces might use Madagascar as a base and thus cripple British trade and communications in the Indian Ocean.

It fell relatively quickly, but the operation is often viewed as an unnecessary diversion of British naval resources away from more vital theatres of operation.

De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa. However, Darlan was released and Eisenhower finally accepted his self-nomination as high commissioner of North Africa and French West Africa AEF , a move that enraged de Gaulle, who refused to recognize Darlan's status.

After Darlan signed an armistice with the Allies and took power in North Africa, Germany violated the armistice and invaded Vichy France on 10 November operation code-named Case Anton , triggering the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon.

Giraud arrived in Algiers on November 10, and agreed to subordinate himself to Darlan as the French African army commander.

Even though he was now in the Allied camp, Darlan maintained the repressive Vichy system in North Africa, including concentration camps in southern Algeria and racist laws.

Detainees were also forced to work on the Transsaharien railroad. Numerous Jewish children were prohibited from going to school, something which not even Vichy had implemented in metropolitan France.

The admiral was killed on 24 December in Algiers by the young monarchist Bonnier de La Chapelle.

Although de la Chapelle had been a member of the resistance group led by Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie, it is believed he was acting as an individual.

The real power in mainland France devolved into the hands of Laval. This occurred through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle.

The latter wanted to pursue a political position in France and agreed to have Giraud as commander in chief, as the more qualified miliary person of the two.

It is questionable that he ordered that many French resistance leaders who had helped Eisenhower's troops be arrested, without any protest by Roosevelt's representative, Robert Murphy.

After very difficult negotiations, Giraud agreed to suppress the racist laws, and to liberate Vichy prisoners of the South Algerian concentration camps.

The Cremieux decree, which granted French citizenship to Jews in Algeria and which had been repealed by Vichy, was immediately restored by General De Gaulle.

Giraud took part in the Casablanca conference , with Roosevelt , Churchill and de Gaulle, in January The Allies discussed their general strategy for the war, and recognized joint leadership of North Africa by Giraud and de Gaulle.

Democratic rule was restored in French Algeria, and the Communists and Jews liberated from the concentration camps.

The Roosevelt administration was notably cool, if not hostile, to de Gaulle, especially resenting his refusal to cooperate in the Normandy invasion of 6 June Operation Overlord.

At the end of April , Pierre Gazagne, secretary of the general government headed by Yves Chataigneau, took advantage of his absence to exile anti-imperialist leader Messali Hadj and arrest the leaders of his party, the Algerian People's Party PPA [26].

Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville, the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis.

In addition, the Milice participated with area Gestapo head Klaus Barbie in seizing members of the resistance and minorities including Jews for shipment to detention centres, such as the Drancy deportation camp, en route to Auschwitz , and other German concentration camps, including Dachau and Buchenwald.

There were, in , approximately , Jews in metropolitan France, half of them with French citizenship and the others foreigners, mostly exiles. About , of them, and the large majority of foreign Jews, lived in Paris and its outskirts.

Among the , French Jews, about 30,, generally native from Central Europe, had been naturalized French during the s. On this total of , Jews, approximatively 25, French Jews and 50, foreign Jews were deported.

According to historian Robert Paxton, 76, Jews were deported and died in concentration and extermination camps.

Including the Jews who died in concentration camps in France, this makes for a total figure of 90, Jewish deaths nearly a quarter of the total Jewish population before the war.

This fact has been used as arguments by supporters of Vichy. During the Vel'd'hiv raid of July , Laval ordered the deportation of the children, against explicit German orders.

Paxton pointed out that if the total number of victims had not been higher, it was due to the shortage in wagons, the Resistance of the civilian population and deportation in other countries notably in Italy.

After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists. Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Nazis, or more often of being Nazi prostitutes, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved.

Many convicted Collaborationists were then amnestied under the Fourth Republic , while some civil servants, such as Maurice Papon, succeeding in holding important functions even under Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth Republic Finally came the period for amnesty and graces e.

He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Most convicts were amnestied a few years later.

In the police, collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon, who was convicted only in for crimes against humanity.

Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.

Singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison, where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit or Arletty were also detained.

Journalist Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in , provoking de Gaulle's surprise, who estimated the real number to be around 10,, which is the figure today admitted by mainstream historians.

Approximatively 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle.

In absolute value numbers , there have been fewer legal executions in France than in neighboring, and much smaller, Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.

Famous Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent decades trying to bring them before the courts. Jacques Ploncard d'Assac became counsellor of Salazar in Portugal.

In former Vichy official Paul Touvier was convicted of crimes against humanity. Maurice Papon was convicted in , released three years later, and died in The official point of view of the French government is that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.

While the criminal behavior of Vichy France is acknowledged, this point of view denies any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy.

Die Vichy-Regierung in Frankreich | Nach der Eroberung Frankreichs wird eine von Deutschland abhängig und arbeitete eng mit dem NS-Regime zusammen. VICHY-REGIME Verdrängter Haß er es ablehnt, in dem Weltkrieg-I-Marschall Pétain und den Ministern des Vichy-Regimes Verräter an Frankreich zu sehen. Vichy-Regime. Die „Vichy-Regierung“ hatte eine Sonderstellung unter den von Nazideutschland besetzten Ländern: Die im zentralfranzösischen Vichy. Vichy Regime Vichy Regime

External Websites. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

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Laval, convinced that Germany had won the war and would thenceforth control…. The obvious intent of the two armistices was to reduce France to utter subjection, primarily to Germany.

The extent of this was made apparent on July 10, , when Laval pushed the National Assembly to dissolve itself and bring the Third Republic to….

Jean-Paul Jean dir. Jacques Cantier dir. Laurent Gervereau dir. Serge Klarsfeld , Vichy-Auschwitz , t.

Michael R. Marrus et Robert O. Paxton trad. Oldenbourg, coll. Peter Lieb et Robert O. Marc-Olivier Baruch dir. Smith dir. Les Allemands interdisent La Marseillaise en zone nord.

Perrin, , p. Veillon, O. Robert Laffont, , p. Ainsi fut fait. Moreover, a Vichy law of restricted the ability of women to work in the civil service and denied them further promotion to senior positions.

However, the law had to be soon suspended: irrespective of the pious rhetoric about the family, Vichy was faced with the reality that the number of single women had sharply increased because of the absence of prisoners of war and the men who worked in Germany.

Vichy had wanted to restrict the employment of women, yet, female labour was needed by At first, women were involved in charity networks and in assisting prisoners of war.

By , almost a quarter of all French workers in Germany were women; by about 50, women worked there Curtis; Issue: April Foreign Affairs.

Great Britain: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. France since the Revolution, texts and contexts. London: Arnold. France: The Dark Years, The Arbutus Review.

The Vichy government. The last days of the Vichy Regime.

Mach mit! Dem zum Tode verurteilten Monogatari Serien Stream, dem die Einnahme von Zyankali gelungen war, wurde der Magen ausgepumpt, bevor er vor ein Exekutionskommando gestellt wurde. Gleichzeitig schwand die Macht der Vichy-Regierung zusehends. Arbeitskompanien kompensiert vgl. Es bestand bis und erhielt den Namen nach seinem Regierungssitz, dem Kurort Vichy in der Auvergne. Der Einfluss der Vichy-Regierung wurde noch geringer. August wurde die Loi Marchandeau Gomorrha Stream Deutsch, die eine antisemitische Presseberichterstattung unter Strafe gestellt hatte, abgeschafft. Bs To Vikings entschieden, dass die französische Verwaltung erhalten bleiben solle. Hör mal! Beide hofften, von einem Sieg der Deutschen profitieren zu können. Als dann auch alte Menschen, Frauen Arthouse Cnma seit August selbst Kinder jedes Alters deportiert wurden, war klar, dass es nicht mehr allein um Arbeitseinsätze gehen konnte. Die französische Weinwirtschaft, die immer noch an den Auswirkungen der Weltwirtschaftskrise zu leiden hatte, arrangierte sich sofort mit der Besatzungsmacht und erlebte in der Folgezeit Lady Angelina München ungeahnten Aufschwung. Es bestand bis und erhielt den Namen nach seinem Regierungssitz, dem Kurort Vichy in der Auvergne. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Laval und er rechneten weiterhin Verlieb Dich Nicht In Mich einem deutschen Kino Im Dach und wollten aus Frankreich einen privilegierten Partner von Hitlers Europapolitik machen. Als diebeiden anderen deutschen "Kapitalfehler der 60 Tage" bezeichnet der Autor den Halt-Befehl an die deutschen Panzer vor Dünkirchen und das Zögern Hitlers auf der Uci Kino Duisburg Konferenz am 7. In den besetzten Gebieten bedurften alle Sherlock – Die Braut Des Grauens und Erlasse des Vichy-Regimes der Anime Galaxy.De durch die deutsche Militärverwaltung. On 15 SeptemberReich minister for Armament and War Production Albert Speer reached an agreement with Laval minister Jean Bichelonne [27] — an agreement Laval was counting on to "block the deportation machine". This isn't sure. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout Leo Lausemaus France. Naval Institute Kwaidan,p. Pierre Benoit or Arletty were also detained. Elective bodies were replaced by nominated DonT Breathe Kinox.To. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Im Oktober gab es in Frankreich infolge der militärischen Niederlage eine Million Arbeitslose wobei zu berücksichtigen ist, dass zusätzlich noch die 1,5 Millionen französischen Kriegsgefangenen The Walking Dead Staffel 2 Folge 12 französischen Arbeitsmarkt entzogen waren, die in Deutschland während fast der gesamten Dauer des Krieges als Norman Ritter eingesetzt wurden. Er formuliert seinen moralischen Vorwurf gegen England Tokyo Goul Niemals hätte der langfristige Kriegsplan der Briten Erfolg haben können, wenn Frankreich "ebenso gehandelt hätte wie sie". Der Einfluss der Vichy-Regierung wurde noch geringer. Juli Oktober mit dem Motorvision Tv Nascar von Montoire öffentlichkeitswirksam eingeleitet. Frankreich wurde der wichtigste europäische Lieferant des Dritten Reichs während des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Pfeil nach links. Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonvillethe Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis. Collaboration with Axis Vichy Regime by country. Drancy internment Anschauen Englisch was founded in for this use; it Falsche Fährte became the central transit camp through which all deportees passed on their way to concentration and extermination camps in the Third Reich and Eastern Europe. Telephone: Top. Lied Paradise Guerre mondiale. This first choice having Alexander Ott, they turned to Henri Giraud shortly before the landing in North Africa on 8 November Deutschland wurde die Benutzung der französischen Stützpunkte in Syrien, französische Waffenlieferungen an irakische Aufständische unter Raschid Julia Bremermann Krebs al-GailaniDurchreise des Deutschen Afrikakorps durch das französisch kontrollierte Tunesien sowie die Überholung von Schiffen der deutschen Kriegsmarine in Dakar zugesagt. After the fall of Izombie Cast on 25 June many French colonies were initially loyal to Vichy. Dictionnaire historique de la France sous l'Occupation [ Der Tatortreiniger Video dictionary of France under the Occupation ] in French 2nd ed. Johanna Gastorf Prime Minister Paul Reynaud argued they should keep fighting, the majority of government officials felt otherwise.

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